In car speak, hybrid refers to the use of more than one type of technology to provide motion. Typically, this means an internal combustion engine and an electric motor that can power the vehicle alone or assist the internal combustion engine.
Hybrid vehicles typically use less fuel and produce fewer emissions than a similar sized conventional vehicle.
This is achieved by:
- Capturing energy that would normally be wasted during braking and deceleration
- Storing this captured energy in special battery packs
- Using this energy to assist the internal combustion engine, or using the electric motor alone for low speed driving
- Stopping the internal combustion engine when it isn’t needed
- Using smaller, more fuel-efficient internal combustion engines than would otherwise be used in a similar sized conventional vehicle
The common types of hybrid vehicle systems
The first type uses an electric motor to assist a small petrol engine to drive the vehicle. The electric motor changes to a generator during braking, deceleration, and light cruise conditions. The energy produced is stored in a battery pack and is then used to assist the petrol engine accelerate the vehicle when needed. This type cannot be driven on the electric motor alone.
The second type also has both electric motors and an internal combustion engine. Again, the electric motors can be used to generate power, which is stored in battery packs. Either the internal combustion engine or electric motor can power the vehicle independently of each other. However, the electric motor is generally only capable of low speeds and relatively short distances. The electric motor can also assist the internal combustion engine.
Plug in Hybrid
Another variation on the hybrid theme is the plug-in hybrid. These operate in a similar way to those already mentioned, however their battery packs can also be charged from mains power. Benefits include the ability to recharge during off peak periods to reduce operating costs.
These are conventional vehicles that generate and store electricity during braking and deceleration so that it can be used later to drive electrical equipment, reducing fuel consumption.
Range Extended Electric Vehicles
Another system, sometimes called a range extended electric vehicle, uses a full electric drivetrain and battery pack which is supplemented by a petrol engine driving a generator. There is some debate over whether these should be regarded as a true hybrid vehicle though.
Getting the best from a hybrid
Hybrid vehicles are at their best in city traffic where there is a lot of stop / start driving to charge the battery pack. Highway driving does not provide as many free opportunities to recharge the battery packs.
Depending on traffic conditions and how the vehicle is used, significant fuel savings can be achieved. However, their highway fuel consumption can probably be equalled, if not bettered, by some modern turbo diesels.
Due to the cost of the technology, hybrid vehicles are more expensive than an equivalent conventional model.
Hybrid battery packs are very expensive to replace, and some potential hybrid buyers are concerned about the battery’s life expectancy. While we are aware of occasional battery failures, hybrid manufacturers generally offer a much longer warranty on the battery packs than is offered on the rest of the vehicle. Its fair to say though that an out of warranty battery failure could render a hybrid vehicle uneconomical to repair in the same way a major engine or transmission failure would in an older conventional model.
Hybrid and electric vehicles are required to meet all current vehicle safety standards and some additional electrical safety standards. However, like any piece of electrical equipment, there is a risk of electrocution if safety precautions are not followed.